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Novititae Cantus, an electronic newsletter pertaining to chant: Volume 1

Subject: Notitiae Cantus
Date: Mon, 26 Sep 94 23:07:39 CET
From: Guido Milanese

Notitiae Cantus
An International Newsletter
for Gregorian Chant and other repertoires of Western Chant
Preliminary Information

(1) This letter is being sent to all those who answered my
request posted in various lists (Liturgy, Early Music,
Med&RenMusic...) this summer, as well as to others I
thought might be interested.

(2) The purpose of _Notitiae Cantus_ is to spread informa-
tion about events regarding Gregorian Chant and other
repertoires of Western Chant (Ambrosian, Beneventan
etc.). Participants are invited to post information
regarding research projects, works in progress, Latin
liturgy, concerts, seminars, MA theses and Phd disserta-
tions, new books, etc.

(3) _Notitiae Cantus_ is not a journal, but a simple
newsletter. It will not be a regular Internet "list"
because at present I do not have the necessary facili-
ties to develop a discussion group of this nature.
_Notitiae Cantus_ will be sent monthly to all sub-

(4) As a newsletter, _Notitiae Cantus_ needs regular con-
tribution from its subscribers. Information should be
sent as pure ASCII file to my private email address
( Italics should be coded with the
underlining character ( _) at beginning and at the end
(_ ) of the phrase or title to be italicized,in order to
make conversion to italics easy when downloaded (please
note the space before and after '_'). Please do _not_
use my University email address as I plan to produce the
newsletter at home.

(5) Subscription through email is free. A hardcopy of
_Notitiae Cantus_ will be made available to subscribers
who require or prefer this mode of publication. In order
to cover the cost of printing and postage, an annual
charge of $15 will be asked for this service.

(6) Preferred languages for contributions are Latin and
English. Accents and diacritical marks in other modern
European languages (e.g. French, German, Italian,
Spanish) are difficult to use, due to limitations of
email characters. If you submit in another language, all
accents should be 'translated' or texts should be

(7) Please send your comments, suggestions and contributions
as soon as possible. I would like to deliver the first
issue of _Notitiae Cantus_ by mid-October.

Thank you for your interest and cooperation.

Guido Milanese
Universita' Cattolica Internet:
Ist. di Filologia Classica smail: Largo Gemelli 1
+39.2.72342-750 Fax -740 I-20123 Milano MI
(Home +39.10.252959)


Subject: Notitiae Cantus 1
Date: Sat, 5 Nov 94 12:00:28 CET
From: Guido Milanese


An International Newsletter
for Gregorian Chant and other Repertoires of Western Chant

I 1-10
January-October 1994

Guido Milanese.............................Praefatiuncula

Investigationes de cantu
(1.1) Ruth Steiner..............................Cantus Project
(1.2) ......................................RISM-US Music Mss.

Practica cantus
(2.1) Guido Milanese..................Gregorian Chant and Genoa
(2.2) Fr. Jerry Chinchar.......................Chant in English
.......................................Chant Notation Font

Notitiae Cantus
The newsletter should be published on a monthly basis (this issue
is labeled `n. 1-10' because the 1st issue appears on October).
Subscription through email is free. A hardcopy of Notitiae Cantus
will be made available to subscribers who require or prefer this
mode of publication. In order to cover the cost of printing and
postage, an annual charge of $15 will be asked for this service.
Preferred languages for contributions are Latin and English.
Please direct your comments or questions to the Internet address
This issue has been sent to 82 email subscribers; 25 printed
copies were sent to musicians, liturgists, and musicologists.

Genova, 29 ottobre 1994
Guido Milanese

Salita del Passero 11, I-16126 Genova GE, Italia
Tel. +39.10.252959
Universita' Cattolica, Largo Gemelli 1, I-20123 Milano MI,
Tel. +39.2.72342-750, fax -740

Notitiae Cantus, October 1994 1 of 8

Guido Milanese

To the Reader
In my email letter of last September I justified the reasons of
this newsletter. I decided to use a very simple layout, in order
to make the transmission through email easy and safe. The newslet-
ter can be easily read on screen or printed (e.g. with a simple
PRINT statement from Dos: 60 lines/page). Should anyone prefer
a better layout, please drop me a line: I can send you a Nota-
Bene or XY file, a RTF file (Font: Times True Type; Page size:
Letter) easy to import into any standard Dos-Win-Mac WP, or a
Postscript file.
Subscribers are kindly requested to send information regard-
ing research projects, works in progress, Latin liturgy, concerts,
seminars, MA theses and Phd dissertations, new books, etc. Thank
you: a newsletter is useless if there is no information.

(1.1) Cantus Project
Ruth Steiner

A team of scholars at the Catholic University of America is
developing a database intended to facilitate study of chants of
the Divine Office. It is in the form of indices of selected
sources, most of them manuscripts. The material is available on
the Internet; files may be searched or downloaded. The project as
a whole is called CANTUS.

CANTUS is a data base made up of indices to sources containing
chants for the Divine Office. It uses as models two older kinds of
indices those published in various facsimile editions of sources
(for example, Paleographie musicale), and those presented by Dom
Rene'-Jean Hesbert in Corpus Antiphonalium Officii (CAO: Rome,
1963-79). In CANTUS, each file corresponds to a single source;
each chant is represented by one record. The fields contained in a
CANTUS record are as follows: folio number, feast day, office,
genre, liturgical position, text incipit (limited to 29 charac-
ters), CGBEMV, HRDFSL (letters indicating those of the sources
surveyed by Hesbert in which the chant appears), CAO reference
number, mode, and differentia. Chants that do not appear in CAO
are included in such a way that they can be extracted from the
file and printed in a separate list.
One need being addressed in this project is that for indices
of sources of the Divine Office to supplement those that are
already available; a CANTUS index of a particular source will
normally be used by a scholar who possesses a microfilm of that
It should be remembered that the flexibility of a com-
puterized index greatly facilitates access to the information it
contains. For example, one can learn within seconds whether a
source contains a particular chant, and if so, exactly what its
role is. One can quickly locate the series of chants for a certain
feast day. A list of all of the antiphons assigned to the Mag-
nificat of Vespers, the Benedictus of Lauds, or marked simply in
evangelio, can easily be prepared.
A tonary for an entire source, listing all the antiphons by
mode and differentia, is easy to prepare if there is a CANTUS
index for it; and antiphons assigned to a certain mode and dif-
ferentia can be printed in alphabetical order, or in liturgical
order, or both. If one wishes to examine the melodies provided for
those responsory verses that are not sung to the standard tones,
finding them is a matter of just a few key-strokes.
CANTUS also makes it easier for the scholar to draw on
information carried over from Corpus Antiphonalium Officii (CAO).
One can prepare a list of all of the chants included in a CANTUS
file that are also found in one or another of the sources indexed
by Hesbert. The advantages over printbased media are obvious.
CANTUS files available on gopher may be searched and
examined in gopher, or the reader may download the files for use
on his own computer. Since CANTUS files are in `standard data
format' (also known as `system data format'), searches and
modifications can be made on a mainframe or on a microcomputer
using any standard word processing program. Database software,
such as dBase, may also be used. (See the instructions in this
directory for a dBASE file structure and instructions for using
If the reader prefers to use a different database program
and is thoroughly familiar with its use, he should experience no
difficulty once he has incorporated the CANTUS data into the file
structure of the program of his choice. (CANTUS files have been
used successfully by scholars who have Macintosh computers; the
data bases they have reported using include Excel and Foxbase+.)
CANTUS files are also available in versions in which the
number of characters per record is 128. In these versions there is
a field that provides an identifying number for each feast and
another field that identifies the source (useful when indices are
combined for sorting). There is also a sequence number (a two-
digit number that indicates the order in which chants appear on
the page), and two extra fields in which additional information
may be stored. For clarity, empty columns separate all fields.
These versions of the CANTUS files are available on request.
For a few CANTUS indices, versions are available in book
form: these include Toledo 44.2, for which the index was prepared
by Ronald T. Olexy and others; Piacenza 65, by Keith Glaeske and
others; the Sarum antiphons, by Lila Collamore and Joseph P. Met-
zinger; and Bamberg, lit. 25, by Lila Collamore and Joseph P. Met-
zinger. Each book includes an introduction that describes the man-
uscript and certain features of the chants it contains; for the
Piacenza manuscript the introduction was written by Paul Merkley,
for the Toledo antiphoner by Ruth Steiner.
Additional volumes in preparation include indices of
Karlsruhe, Aug. LX (introduction by Hartmut Moeller) and Cambrai
38 and Impr. XVI C 4 (introduction by Barbara Haggh). The pub-
lisher of the series is the Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1270
Lampman Crescent, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2C 1P8; the volume con-
taining the Sarum antiphons was published by the Plainsong and
Mediaeval Music Society (London) and the Bamberg index is avail-
able from the project director.
The mailing address of the CANTUS office is School of Music,
The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064, USA.
Queries sent by Internet should be directed to
IN%`' CANTUS files are distributed via Internet
without charge; for those sent on diskette through conventional
mail there is a nominal charge for postage and handling.
Funding for CANTUS has been received from the Catholic
University of America, the Dom Mocquereau Foundation, and the
National Endowment for the Humanities.
The database is placed here at the disposal of colleagues in
accordance with the aims of the International Musicological
Society Study Group Cantus Planus, which promotes cooperation in
computer-assisted projects and the exchange of data in electronic

To go through GOPHER to find the CANTUS indices, follow the
route outlined below.

From your system prompt, type the word Gopher.
On the first screen you see, select 12. Internet Tools and
On the next screen, select 10. Other Gopher and Information
On the next, select 8. North America.
On the next, select 4. USA.
On the next, select 49. Washington, DC.
On the next, select 14. The Catholic University of America.
On the next, select 9. Schools of the University.
On the next, select 2. The Benjamin T. Rome School of Music.
On the next, select 2. CANTUS database of Gregorian Chant.

In the list that appears next, you may find item 9 particularly
valuable; it enables the user to search the entire database for a
single chant. Item 11 is a catalogue of the microfilms of liturgi-
cal sources containing musical notation that are in the Dom Moc-
quereau Foundation Collection in Mullen Library at The Catholic
University of America.


This article is not of exclusive interest of Chant
scholars, but can be very useful for any research concern-
ing musicology. Professor John B. Howard, Director of the
U.S. RISM Office, informs that the time period com-
prehended by the database is ca. 1580-ca.1825, but this
can be very helpful for scholars interested in later
sources of Chant. (gm)

The U.S. RISM Office and the Joint Committee on RISM of the
American Musicological Society and the Music Library Association
announce the availability online of the RISM-US Music Manuscripts
Database. It is made available as a special database in HOLLIS,
the Harvard University online library catalogue. The database
holds the U.S. contribution to the international project RISM
Series A/II, a world-wide inventory of music manuscripts of the
period ca. 1580-1825. As of October 1, 1994 the database contains
14,593 bibliographic records representing sources at fifty
American libraries. Additional records will be added regularly; by
July 1995 the database is expected to contain more than 30,000
bibliographic records.
The RISM-US Music Manuscipts Database provides detailed
information on manuscripts containing music in staff notation,
including separate bibliographic records for each musical work in
a collective manuscript. The types of information recorded
include: physical descriptions of documents; analytic descriptions
of pieces (sections or movements are analyzed by text incipit,
genre term, tempo/expression markings, key and time signature);
encoded music incipits (in the Plaine and Easie Code); information
from secondary sources (including references to printed manifesta-
tions of pieces, date of composition and performance history,
names of librettists, dedicatees, etc.); and character names in
dramatic works.
The database can be searched by personal and institutional
names, titles (including text incipits), and Library of Congress
subject headings. Other indexes have been designed to offer access
to many of the specialized types of information in the database:
searches can be made for genre terms used in the manuscripts,
names of dramatic roles, encoded music incipits, geographic place
names (representing a manuscript's city and country of origin),
and RISM Series A/II identification numbers. In addition, the
database supports keyword searching in a variety of categories.
To access the database via the Internet, use telnet or
tn3270 to connect to HOLLIS:
-> tn3270 or
-> telnet
(Alternatively, use the numeric Internet address
Respond appropriately to system prompts (which differ for telnet
and tn3270) to select HOLLIS. Once you are presented with the
HOLLIS database selection menu, type `RS' and press enter to
choose the RISM-US Music Manuscripts Database. The initial RISM
menu displays the names of three basic indexes. To see which other
indexes are available, enter `other' or `keyword' and press enter
(these commands can be entered at any time during your session).
Basic search syntax is:
Additional online help is available by entering `help '
and pressing Enter. It is possible to save search results and send
them to your e-mail address. For information on how to store
records, type `help store' and press Enter; for help on sending
them, type `help send' and press enter.
The information in the RISM-US Music Manuscripts Database
has been compiled at the U.S. RISM Office, which has been hosted
by the Music Library at Harvard University since 1985. Support for
its operations has been provided by the National Endowment for the
Humanities, an independent federal agency, and Harvard University.
The U.S. RISM Office welcomes new information from users
about sources it has inventoried (e.g., composer identifications,
concordances, etc.). Please direct your comments or questions to
the U.S. RISM Office at


(2.1) Gregorian Chant and Genoa
Guido Milanese

Genoa, one of the most important towns of northern Italy, has a
long tradition of using Gregorian Chant in Roman Catholic liturgy.
Cardinal Giuseppe Siri (1906-1989), Archbishop of Genoa during 41
years, encouraged priests to use Chant even after the Seventies,
when the translation of liturgy had provoked the cancellation of
most Latin liturgy (although Latin was never formally suppressed).
In the 80's an important Genoese and Italian centre of Chant was a
clerical foundation established in town by the French priest Mgr
J.F. Guerin (Fraternite' Saint-Martin); this organization left
Genoa in 1993, moving to France due to a request of several French
A parish church in centre of town, San Carlo's, is now
developing a Latin liturgy, following the rules of Paul VI's Mis-
sal and using extensively Gregorian Chant. There is also a weekly
class of Gregorian Chant, taught by G.M. at the School of Music
of this church. There are several other churches in town that
offer services in Latin with much or less intensive use of chant,
but the musical quality is generally poor. A curiosity for stu-
dents of Liturgy might be that one of these churches, called
Madonna del Rimedio, was for decades the church of Mgr Mario
Righetti, the author of the well known manual _Storia liturgica_
and the Italian translator of volume I of Peter Wagner's Gregori-
anischer Choral.
The vocal ensemble directed by G.M., Ars Antiqua, organized
a seminar of Liturgy and Chant last September (4th to 11th) in
cooperation with a musicology society called Associazione Ligure
per la Ricerca delle Fonti Musicali. The course took place at
Arenzano, near Genoa, at the school of music of the Carmelitan
Friars. It was a real success; participants came from various
areas of Italy but there was also a certain interest out of the
country. Lecturers were Bonifacio Baroffio, a Benedictine abbot
and Dean of the Pontifical Institute of Church Music at Rome,
Godehard Joppich, a well known German scholar and musician (remem-
ber his recordings for Archiv and other labels), Guido Milanese,
Fabrizio Fancello (organ) and Piergiorgio Righele (vocal techni-
que). At the end of the Seminar we performed Vespers in Latin
(celebrated by Mgr Mario Oliveri, Bishop of Albenga and Imperia)
and a Holy Mass celebrated by the Rev. Father Abbot. The seminar
will be organized again next year.

(2.2) Chant in English and Chant Notation Font
Fr. Jerry Chinchar

Fr. Jerry Chinchar, S.M. (at the University of Dayton -
Campus Ministry) has the following information:

We sing morning prayer every day and I write the antiphons. I use
the St. Meinrad Psalm Tones. St. Meinrad's Archabbey has continued
the chant tradition in English. Fr. Columba wrote a set of psalm
tones, based on the eight modes, but appropriate for using with
English text, especially the Grail Psalms.
The Meinrad Tones have great flexibility too. The normal
tone has four sections, for the normal four lines in a Grail
Psalm. But this can be reduced to 2 or 3 lines depending on the
Psalm. There is also an expanded version of each psalm which gives
you the possibilities of six lines. Much better for the text than
the old Latin tones which presumes that every Psalm is easily
divisible by two.
Furthermore, one of the monks has written a TrueType font
which allows you to write authentic chant notation in either the
Microsoft Windows or Macintosh environments, right in your word
processor. You don't need an extra program.

Subject: Notitiae Cantus #2
Date: Mon, 2 Jan 95 22:38:19 CET
From: Guido Milanese

An International Newsletter for Gregorian Chant and other Repertoires of Western Chant
November-December, 1994

G.M....Praefatiuncula Secunda

Investigationes de cantu Thomas J. Mathiesen......Thesaurus Musicarum Latinarum

Practica cantus GM.....Gregorian Chant Books

Notitiae Cantus
Subscription to this newsletter through email is free. A hardcopy of Notitiae Cantus will be made available to subscribers who require or prefer this mode of publication. In order to cover the cost of printing and postage, an annual charge of $15 will be asked for this service. Preferred languages for contributions are Latin and English. Please direct your comments or questions to the Internet address For Gopher users, the files are available from the archive for on ftp: //; /pub/earlym-l; /Notitiae.Cantus; /Notitiae.Cantus.# (1, 2 ecc.). This issue has been sent to 195 email subscribers; 25 printed copies were sent to musicians, liturgists, and musicologists. To print the email version, set your printer to page size = 60 lines.

Genova, 30 dicembre 1994
Guido Milanese
Salita del Passero 11, I-16126 Genova GE, Italia
Tel. +39.10.252959
Universita' Cattolica, Largo Gemelli 1, I-20123 Milano MI,
Tel. +39.2.72342-750, fax -740

Notitiae Cantus, November-December 1994 1 of 6


Praefatiuncula Secunda

Due to the kind support of Gerhard Gonter ( NC is now available through Gopher (see above). Thank you Gerhard Gonter for this essential improvement of NC.
In the 1st issue of NC I required subscribers to send information regarding research projects, works in progress, Latin liturgy, concerts, seminars, MA theses and Phd dissertations, new books, etc. At this stage, although surprised for the interest for NC (about 200 subscriptions), I regret to say that no subscriber sent articles. In this issue I am publishing information on Gregorian books and on TML, but I think that this way NC will survive only three or four issues. This would be lamentable, because a newsletter in this area is unquestionably useful. Thanks for your friendly cooperation, and Happy New Year.


Gregorian Chant Books

Following several discussion groups on Internet, such as Early Music, Med-and-Ren-Music, Liturgy, I noticed that most musicians and some scholars still consider the old Liber Usualis the only, or the basic, printed source of chant.
For those who are not familiar with these items, the LU was a book of Gregorian chant, printed with the purpose of collecting all the most important pieces, necessary for the Roman Catholic Liturgy, in one volume; this was intended to help priests who did not have enough resources and liturgical-musical experience to use Gradual, Antiphonal and so on. Designed at the end of 19th century, the LU became extremely popular also among scholars; after the '70s, Solesmes, the French monastery that publishes chant books, discontinued the LU reprints because it could not be easily used with the new calendar and the new rubrics of the so called "Mass of Paul VI", the new Ordo Missae. However, this is not a problem for scholars and musicians, because chant books available for the Latin Catholic Liturgy are now normally better than the old LU.
Here is the list of chant books available from Solesmes. The basic set that I recommend to any church musician or scholar is:

(1) Graduale Triplex, for the Mass;
(2) Antiphonale Monasticum, for other services (e.g. Vespers);
(3) Liber Hymnarius, for Hymns.

Since instruction is necessary to understand the medieval neumes copied in the Graduale Triplex, in the forthcoming issue of NC I will post a basic bibliography of manuals available in various languages. For prices and order information, write to:
Les Editions de Solesmes
Abbaye Saint-Pierre de Solesmes
F-72300 SABLE'-SUR-SARTHE, France
Tel.: (+33)
Fax : (+33)

Graduale Romanum
Chants for the Mass, following Paul VI's calendar and ritual Graduale Triplex
As previous item, plus neumes copied from St. Gallen and Laon sources
Offertoriale Triplex
Offertoires and verses, with neumes Ordo missae in cantu
"Altar book" necessary for the Latin liturgy of Paul VI's ritual of the Mass. For concelebration, a Liber concelebrantium is also available

Latin-French: Missel Gregorien. Contains Masses of Sundays and of the most important celebrations, with texts and references to lessons. Latin chants in the traditional chant notation. The same edition in available in Latin-English (Gregorian Missal) and Latin-Dutch (Gregoriaans Missaal) editions.

Other books: Kyriale is obviously an abstract from Graduale Romanum; Liber Cantualis is an anthology of basic Gregorian chant pieces. For organists, there is a 3 volumes Graduale Romanum comitante organo and a "basic" Liber cantualis comitante organo

Antiphonale monasticum (edit. 1934)
For horae diurnae (Lauds, Vespers...); not for Matins. Liber Hymnarius (edit. 1983)
This is the 2nd volume of the new Antiphonale Romanum according to Paul VI's ritual (the 1st is not yet ready). A Latin-French edition is also available (it is called Hymnaire) Processionale monasticum
Chants of the ancient Monastic Processional, with neumes Psalterium monasticum
Psalms of the Neo Vulgata (the new Latin translation) with antiphons, hymns, verses for Monastic liturgy. The Latin-French edition is called Psautier monastique Other books are: Litaniae in cantu (for the orationes of Vespers and Lauds, required in several modern rituals); Documenta (a survival guide to the new rituals); Benedictiones mensae; Rituale Solesmense. A very useful little book is Cantus selecti, an intelligent anthology. Please notice that monasteries may always follow the old structure of Vespers, Lauds etc. There are several schemata (structures) and there is a certain freedom in ritual. If readers are interested, I will write a "how-to" guide to Vespers and Mass.


Subject: notitiae cantus
Date: Sun, 26 Mar 95 23:07:34 CEST
From: Guido Milanese


An International Newsletter
for Gregorian Chant and other Repertoires of Western Chant

II 1
January-March, 1995

Investigationes de cantu
Charles Cameron.....................`Collecting' Gregorian Chant

Practica cantus
G.M................................Gregorian Chant Books: Prices
G.M....................Gregorian Chant Books: Textbooks, Manuals
G.M.............................Gregorian Chant Seminar in Italy

_Notitiae Cantus_
Subscription to this newsletter through email is free. A
hardcopy of _Notitiae Cantus_ will be made avail-
able to subscribers who require or prefer this mode of publica-
tion. In order to cover the cost of printing and postage, an
annual charge of $15 will be asked for this service. Preferred
languages for contributions are Latin and English. Please direct
your comments or questions to the Internet address For Gopher users, the files are available from
the archive for on ftp: //;
/pub/earlym-l; /Notitiae.Cantus; /Notitiae.Cantus.# (1, 2 ecc.).
This issue has been sent to 245 email subscribers; 25 printed
copies were sent to musicians, liturgists, and musicologists.
To print the file, type (e.g.) PRINT NC003.TXT at the prompt.

Genova, 20 marzo 1995
Guido Milanese
Salita del Passero 11, I-16126 Genova GE, Italia
Tel. +39.10.252959
Universita' Cattolica, Largo Gemelli 1, I-20123 Milano MI,
Tel. +39.2.72342-750, fax -740

Notitiae Cantus, January-March 1995 1 of 6
Investigationes de cantu

`Collecting' Gregorian Chant
Charles Cameron (

In his Praefatiuncula to the November-December 1994 issue of
_Notitiae Cantus_ , Guido Milanese wrote to us of
his regret that we, the subscribers to NC, had not submitted any
articles "regarding research projects, works in progress, Latin
liturgy, concerts, seminars, MA theses and PhD dissertations,
new books, etc." I fear I have none of these, not being a
scholar of the chant, and it is with some hesitation that I
offer the following in their place...
I am a collector of books, and among the books I collect
are books of Gregorian Chant. Imagine my delight, then, to find
that our host and editor Guido Milanese had included a short
hand-list of chant-related books in the last issue of NC.
My passion for the Chant had its origins long ago. I was
an English schoolboy in an unhappily militaristic school, and
used to spend my holidays whenever possible visiting the
Benedictines of Solesmes. The breakfast of strong coffee and
great hunks of bread, the daily High Mass, the walks and talks
during which the good fathers would reassure me -- when I men-
tioned that I was an Anglican -- that Simone Weil too was not of
the faith, and yet had been a friend of their Abbey... These
were magical times for a teenage boy. And there were classes in
chant, too: I once had the privilege of singing Kyrie XI under
the ictic hand of Dom Gajard.
And the ictus? The very heart of the Solesmes interpreta-
tion of chant rhythm? Did not Saint Augustine himself declare
"In the flash of a trembling glance, I arrived at That Which
Is"? Was not the "ictus" of the chant also that "flash" of that
trembling glance? A "momentary" timelessness within the onward
rush of time?
Many years have passed since those schoolboy days in 1961,
and any skill as a singer that I may once have possessed has
long fled from me. But I treasure memories, and in treasuring
them I seek mementos, talismans. Over the last few years,
therefore, I have quietly been accumulating a small collection
of books on the Chant.
I have, for instance, a precious copy of the Liber Usualis
in its first appearance: Liber Usualis, Solesmis E Typographeo
Sancti Petri, 1896, as well as a more recent (1964) edition
inscribed by Dom Jean Claire -- Dom Gajard's successor as choir
master of Solesmes.
I have the Graduale Triplex that Guido Milanese mentioned,
with the neumes of St Gall and Laon reproduced in addition to
the printed notes.
I have the Antiphonale Monasticum, Desclee, 1934, and the
Processionale Monasticum ad usum Congregationis Gallicae Ordinis
Sancti Benedicti, Solesmis, 1893. For Holy Week, I have the
Ordo Hebdomadae Sanctae iuxta ritum monasticum, Desclee et
Socii, 1957, and In Triduo Sacro Majoris Hebdomadae... Editio
Typica Vaticana, Romae, Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, mcmxxii --
the latter being my only "Vatican Edition".
Quite lovely in the way that old books can be physically
lovely is H.B. Briggs, ed., The Elements of Plainsong, Bernard
Quaritch, 1895. This work, published for the Plainsong and
Mediaeval Music Society, contains several papers by Walter
Howard Frere, a man who interests me also as an early member of
the Anglican Community of the Resurrection... and attempts to
introduce the insights of Dom Gueranger and the Solesmes monks
to the Anglican communion... And perhaps my proudest possession
is a copy of Dom Gregori Sunyol, Introduccio a la Paleografia
Musical Gregoriana, Abadia de Montserrat, mcmxxv, which I was
able to obtain from a dealer in return for an album of German
opera postcards, 1908-1930... I also possess GM Durnford's
translation of Sunyol's Text Book of Gregorian Chant, New York,
For the pre-Solesmes chant, I have a Rituale Romanum from
the celebrated Plantin Press, Antwerp 1826.
And for the music? The LPs that I listened to when I was
at Oxford are now long gone: but I have purchased a number of
Solesmes CDs.
As I have admitted, these books and records are not
scholarly aids in my case, but mememtos and talismans of love.
Like every collector, I wonder at times whether I am suffering
from a sickness -- and then I reflect on the other sicknesses
with which a man could be afflicted, and am content. Until...
Until the next book suggests itself. Because there are
always desiderata, always other books that one wishes one might
acquire... The Dominican Hours designed by that incomparable
artist of sacred image and typography, Eric Gill -- or one of
those great Antiphonals, perhaps, from which I once sang Matins
with the English Trappists...

Footnote: If any of the monks of Solesmes subscribe to NC, I
send my greetings... and hope one day to visit their Abbey once

Practica Cantus

Gregorian Chant Books: Prices

In NC #2 I published a list of "basic books". I have been
requested to post the prices of Solesmes books. Here they are,
with a price in US$ as listed by GIA Publications in Chicago (1-
800-GIA-1358). European customers should contact Solesmes for
the most recent prices (fax #: +33- For details
on the books, please refer to the previous issue of NC
(contact the URL posted above or send a message to me).

Graduale Romanum $42
Graduale Triplex $60
Kyriale $14

Antiphonale Monasticum $56
Liber Hymnarius $54
Psalterium Monasticum $44

Liber Cantualis $13
Graduale Romanum comitante organo $44, $50, $56
Liber Cantualis comitante organo $32

Gregorian Chant: Textbooks, Manuals

The best way to study Gregorian Chant is to attend a school or a
summer `seminar'. I understand that this statement may sound
either trivial or nonsense, but readers should remember that
Gregorian chant is by no means a purely theoretic art/science.
The best scholars, as Dom Cardine or Dom Claire, the ones who
made or make the `real discoveries', those who offer really new
perspectives to scholars and performers, are people who sing
every day. I firmly believe that studying a manual, even if the
best one, is not enough. Attend services in Benedictine
monasteries (the blessed ones where Latin liturgy is still used,
naturally!); attend a class; sing in a choir (conducted by a
real expert) for several years. This is the way.

And these are the manuals:

Mary Berry, _Plainchant for Everyone: An Introduction to
Gregorian chant_ . Croydon, Royal School of Church Music,

Dom Eugene Cardine, _Premiere annee de chant gregorien_ .
French and Italian editions (_Primo anno di canto
gregoriano_) are available from Solesmes. The English edition
is called _Beginning Studies in Gregorian Chant_ (call GIA
Publications in Chicago). Despite the title, I recommend this
book to teachers more than to students.

Dom Eugene Cardine, _Semiologie gregorienne_ .
French, Italian, English, Spanish editions are available from
Solesmes; there is also a Japanese translation. The Portuguese
edition publishes _Primo anno_ and _Semiology_ together.
First published in 1968, this manual has both an historical
and scholarly importance: it was assembled by Cardine's
students (Joppich, Fischer, Baroffio) using the notes of his
lectures at the Pontifical Institute (Rome). Some perspectives
are now obsolete, but any scholar and conductor should be
familiar with this fundamental text.

Dom Cardine's _Graduel Neume'_ (Solesmes) is essen-
tial for those who wish to study Chant seriously. This is a
`copy' of Cardine's private _Graduale Romanum_ : he
used to note his observations in the margins of the book. For
example, he would note that a certain melodic pattern was used
in another piece, that the same word had a similar musical set-
ting, and so on. Invaluable. And no need of a translation: there
are only page numbers and neumes. A substantial help in the same
perspective is now offered by Dom Jacques Guilmard's
_Tonaire du Graduale Triplex et de l'Offertoriale
Triplex_ , published by Solesmes.

If you can read Italian, an unpretentious but useful book is
Alberto Turco's _Il canto gregoriano. Corso
fondamentale_ , published by Torre d'Orfeo (Rome). Father
Turco has an international reputation as a scholar of modality:
this simple manual is a really good introduction in the chant.
There are several manuals of a higher level, such as Rampi and
Lattanzi's _Manuale di canto gregoriano_ , the old
_Gregorian Chant_ by W. Apel and the new _Western plainchant:
a Handbook_ by David Hiley: but in this list I am trying to
register the books useful to beginners.

The `Solesmes method' is more a chapter of ecclesiastic politics
than of scholarship (may be I will be able to publish an English
version of a very interesting report of Dom Claire). Those
interested in Dom Gajard's ideas can read a beautiful little
book, called _Les plus belles melodies gregoriennes_ (Solesmes).

Paleography is an essential tool not only for scholars, but also
for conductors. I suggest Dom Hourlier booklet called _La
notation musicale des chant liturgiques latines_
(Solesmes). 43 photographs of manuscripts, carefully chosen and
commented, can introduce the student into this suggestive field
of investigation.

All these books are easily available through a good bookseller
and none of them is out of print. If requested, I can publish a
complete Gregorian bibliography in a forthcoming issue.


Gregorian Chant Seminar in Italy

Title: Gregorian Chant: Text, Music, Liturgy
Place: Arenzano, Italy (near Genoa, Italian Riviera)
Dates: 4-11 September, 1995

Bonifacio G. Baroffio, OSB: Liturgy
Fabrizio Fancello: Organ Accompaniment
Massimo Lattanzi: Gregorian Semiology
Guido Milanese: Introduction to Greg. Chant
Piergiorgio Righele: Vocal Technique
All the lecturers: Gregorian Performance
Many among the lecturers can speak English; others German,
French, Spanish.

Hotels: Good hotels from ** to *****. Price details on request.
Airport: Genoa International Airport (about 20 minutes)
Events: A concert. Vespers and Chanted Mass in the weekend.

Registration fee: Lire 100,000 (about $ 58) if the application
is sent by the end of June; Lire 130,000 by the end of July;
Lire 150,000 if later. Participants who register by the end of
June will be offered accommodation (B&B) in a *** hotel at very
cheap rates. Meals are offered in a good restaurant within easy
reach of the school ($7 each meal). For details please contact Guido Milanese (addresses and phone numbers listed above).